throbber
HACKH'S
`
`CHEMICAL
`DICTIONARY
`
`[American and British Usage]
`
`Containing the Words Generally Used in Chemistry,
`and Many of the Terms Used in the Related
`Sciences of Physics, Astrophysics, Mineralogy,
`Pharmacy, Agriculture, Biology,
`Medicine, Engineering, etc.
`
`Based on Recent Chemical Literature
`
`FOURTH EDITION
`Completely Revised and Edited by
`
`JULIUS GRANT
`
`M.SC., PH.D., F.R.I.C.
`
`CHEMICAL CONSULTANT
`
`McGRAW -HILL BOOK COMPANY
`Johannesburg
`St. Louis
`San Francisco
`Dusseldorf
`New York
`Kuala Lumpur
`London Mexico Montreal
`New Delhi
`Panama
`Rio de Janeiro
`Singapore
`Sydney
`Toronto
`
`cture
`
`Page 1 of 3
`
`IP Bridge Exhibit 2009
`TSMC v. IP Bridge
`IPR2016-01264
`
`

`

`Inc.
`
`CHEMICAL DICTIONARY
`HACKH'S
`Copyright © 1969 by McGraw-Hill,
`All Rights Reserved.
`renewed 1972 by Julius Grant.
`Copyright
`Copyright 1944, 1937, 1929 by McGraw-Hill,
`Inc.
`All Rights Reserved.
`Printed in the United States of America.
`No part of this publication may be reproduced,
`stored in a retrieval
`system,
`or transmitted,
`in any form or by any means,
`electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
`recording, or otherwise,
`without
`the prior written permission of the publisher.
`Library oj Conqress Catalog Card Number 61.18726
`07-024064-7
`
`9 10 11 - MAMM - 8 4 3 2
`
`Page 2 of 3
`
`

`

`NITRA'l'oa
`
`NJTRAZINE PAPER
`
`457
`
`NITROBENZALDEHYDE
`
`a.t
`
`0
`
`nitrate
`in .fus~d potassiulll
`500 C.
`ataon IS thereby minimized.
`Al
`steels
`containing
`0.2-0 60
`. % C,
`.ened by nitridation.
`.e name. for prills of alnmoniurn
`.
`th a dehquescence-preventin
`Ultrate
`H: NO = 62 I
`C I
`g additive.
`0 orless
`2
`2:
`'.
`yI- C6R.NR·N02
`= 138.!.
`crystals,
`•6, soluble
`in water.
`Colorless
`group
`of compounds
`derived
`frorn
`ad differing
`from nitram'
`by'
`d·
`I
`th
`mes
`e
`.
`ra
`rca -COO-;
`as, NO 'NR.
`COOB,
`c acid.
`2
`Containin
`compound
`organic
`I An
`g
`(2) p'
`-NH-N02
`or =N·NO.
`Icrvl
`"
`. di
`R I ",
`..,.n in icator,
`changing
`0.0
`s (weakly alkaline)
`iethyl- Et2N·NO. = ll8.!.
`~o~~ngly
`;less
`_
`6.
`dimethyl-
`Me.N'NO
`seals, m.58,
`soluble
`in w!ter-'--
`t~':'
`= 90.1.
`Colorless
`liquid m 3 e . y -
`containing
`the
`radical
`'
`'.
`1S0-
`-N-O-N·OR.
`L_____j
`'~'N02 = 138.!.
`crystals
`Colorless
`ill water.
`phenyl methyI- MeNPh.'
`~. Colorless
`crystals, m.39,
`solubl~
`opyI- PrNR·N02·
`Colorless
`liquid,
`
`2
`
`to brown r t
`
`at
`
`n. acetic acid.
`, radical N02NR-.
`120.2. A homolog
`of
`nitro .
`•lorless
`crystals,
`m.I03,
`soluble
`in
`.y acid),
`C6R20sN. = 230.07.
`inone, m.IOO, decornp.
`
`Dinitrodihy.
`170, soluble
`
`15N:NO'OR = 138.!.
`Diazoben.
`isomer
`of
`.)henylisonitramine.
`An
`me. Colorless crystals, mA6, soluble
`
`or
`ortho-
`138.!.
`.. C6R,N02
`in water.
`soluble
`. needles, m. 71,
`ellow needles, m.114, slightly soluble
`:a- or 1,4- Yellow needles, m.146,
`r. All used in organic synthesis
`and
`di- See dinitro-
`for
`strong
`acids.
`
`by
`from benzene
`derived
`npounds
`n of 2 or more H atoms
`by one or
`and NO.-
`radicals.
`The higher-
`'S are powerful
`explosives.
`compound
`salt, o.f nitric
`acid,
`or
`•
`radical
`-NO..
`(2) Nitration.
`(~3- ion, ~olorless,
`and forming no
`oitates With metallic
`ions.
`n. of
`n.
`n. of potash.
`Potassium n.
`lium n.
`n. of soda-potash- A crude
`er : sodium nitrate
`75, potassium
`fertilizer.
`ing
`an
`O2 group.
`era.l form of sodium nitrate.
`troduction
`of the NO. group into
`npourid,
`usually
`by means
`of a
`ric and nitric acids.
`compound
`ndicating
`an
`organic
`Cf. nitrito -;
`~dical-O'N02'
`,I, usually
`double-jacketed,
`
`organic
`
`compound
`
`con-
`
`with
`
`device,
`
`used
`
`It2C:NH,:Cl{
`
`a-
`
`heating or cooling coils and stirring
`[or nitration .
`paper,
`filter
`a
`for
`Trademark
`Nitrazine
`Paper.
`impregnated with sodium dinitrophenyl
`azonaph-
`thol
`disulfonate;
`used
`to
`indicate
`pH values:
`yelloW 4.5, olive green 6.2, blue 7.0.
`.N. yellow_
`An indicator
`dye (pH 6.5: yellow-acid
`to blue-
`green-alkaline).
`n, air.
`See oxygen.
`nitre. Niter.
`of
`the
`type
`nitrenes.
`Compounds
`nitriacidium ion. Nitracidum ion.
`liquid,
`Colorless
`nitric
`63.02.
`acid. HNOa
`used
`in water;
`b.86,
`d 01.53, m.-40.3,
`soluble
`e~tensively
`as its aqueous
`solutions:
`(I) Fuming:
`86% RNOa with some N20 •. Brown-red
`fuming
`liquid, d.1.48-L5;
`an energetic
`oxidizing
`agent
`in
`chemical analysis and synthesis.
`(2) Concentrated:
`Aqua
`fortis,
`azotic
`65 % RNOa.
`acid.
`Faintly
`yellow liquid, d.1.40-1.42.
`Used as a solvent
`for
`metals
`and
`an oxidizing
`agent;
`in etching
`and
`many chemical operations;
`and to nitrate
`organic
`compounds.
`(3)
`32-34%
`d.!'20.
`HNOa.
`(4)
`Dilute:
`10% RNOa.
`Colorless
`liquid,
`d.!.06;
`a
`reagent,
`solvent,
`and
`acidifying
`agent.
`chioro-
`See chloro-,
`per- RNO..
`An acid
`of doubtful
`existence.
`n. anhydride.
`pentoxide,
`Nitrogen
`HNOa + 32% H20.
`d, s.50!.414, b.12!'
`nitric ether.
`Ethyl nitrate.
`nitric oxide. NO = 30.0. N20. = 60.0. Nitrogen
`dioxide.
`Colorless
`gas,
`dair=I1.0366,
`b.-153,
`soluble in water.
`Formed
`in the electric
`arc from
`air; oxidizes readily to nitrogen
`peroxide.
`by
`nitridation.
`(I) Formation
`of metallic
`nitrides
`heating metals
`in nitrogen
`to increase
`hardness.
`Cf. nitration.
`(2) De-electronation
`in the ammonia
`system,
`analogous
`to
`oxidation
`in
`the water
`Cf. nitridizing agent.
`system.
`nitride. A binary compound
`of nitrogen and a metal.
`The alkali
`and earth-alkali
`nitrides
`are
`readily
`
`n. hydrate.
`
`hydrolyzed: Mg3N2+ 6H20 = 3Mg(OR)2 + 2NR3•
`
`furnishes
`that
`A substance
`agent.
`nitridizing
`of electrons
`in
`or causes
`an exchange
`nitrogen
`acid
`(ammono-
`ammonia;
`as,
`hydrazoic
`liquid
`nitric acid), RNa; analogous
`to nitric
`acid, HNOa,
`as oxidizing agent.
`that can
`compound
`nitrifiable.
`Descibing a nitrogen
`be transformed
`into nitrates
`by soil bacteria.
`nitrification.
`Oxidation
`of the nitrogen
`in ammonia
`to nitrous and nitric acid or salts.
`nitrifiers.
`Soil bacteria which oxidize ammonia
`its derivatives
`to nitrites
`(as nitromonas)
`nitrates
`(as nitrobacter).
`nitrifying.
`To cause the oxidation
`atmospheric
`nitrogen to nitrites
`by n. bacteria
`and n. catalysts.
`A catalase that
`nitrilase.
`converts
`cyanohydrins, R·CROH·CN.
`from an acid amide,
`nitrile. A cyanide
`prepared
`- H20 = It·CN;
`on hydrolysis
`they
`R'CONH2
`yield the corresponding
`acid and evolve ammonia.
`n. group.
`The negative
`N from ammonia
`after
`substitution
`of its 3 H atoms.
`n.
`rubber.
`q. v.
`nitriles_ Cyanides.
`Organic
`compounds
`containing
`the radical-CN.
`acid- Nitrile.
`A name indicating
`the relation ofn. with the -COOH group:
`-C(:
`0)·-
`.... -C;N.
`basic- NIta.
`OR .... -C(:O)'NH2
`A
`tertiary
`amine having 3 different C atoms a.ttached
`
`and
`to
`
`or
`
`of ammonia
`and nitrates,
`
`or
`e.g.,
`
`aldehydes
`
`to
`
`triple-bond
`
`nitrogen
`
`name
`
`for a polyacrylonitrile
`
`syn-
`
`allotropic
`0a'
`See
`
`or
`
`di- Dicyanide.
`to the
`A compound
`same N.
`radicals.
`mono- A compound
`containing
`2 -CN
`containing
`one -CN radical.
`nitrile-
`Prefix
`indicating
`a
`atom, =:N.
`Nitrilon_
`Trade
`thetic fiber .
`N 3 = 42.02. A hypothetical
`nitrine.
`form of nitrogen
`analogous
`to ozone,
`active nitrogen.
`compound
`a
`acid,
`of nitrous
`nitrite.
`A salt
`inorganic
`The
`-N02.
`radical
`containing
`the
`insoluble,
`except
`nitrites
`of the type MN02 are all
`the alkali nitrites.
`The organic nitrites
`or nitrito
`compounds may
`be isomeric,
`but
`not
`identical
`with the corresponding
`nitro compounds.
`containing
`nitrito-
`Describing
`an organic
`compound
`the radical
`-O·N:O
`(oxynitroso).
`n. cobalomin.
`Vitamin BlOC' The vitamin
`produced
`by replacing
`the -CN group of vitamin B12 by a -N02
`group.
`nitro-
`(I) A prefix which denotes
`the presence
`of
`
`the radical
`
`-NO.
`
`Or -N(O'
`

`
`.
`
`Nitro compounds
`
`both the radicals
`containing
`A compound
`as: NO .. CH s' COOH, nitro-
`and -N02;
`acid; NO .. CH .. CR .. COOH,
`nitropropionic
`
`from the
`in color, and differ
`yellowish
`are usually
`nitrito
`compounds.
`Cf.
`isomeric
`less
`stable,
`nitroxyl,
`nitrite,
`nitrito.
`(2) A misnomer
`for
`(glyceryl
`nitrate).
`aci-
`nitrate;
`as, nitroglycerin
`iso-
`Isonitro-.
`The
`radical HOON =e,
`iso- See
`nitro-,
`nitroacid.
`-COOH
`acetic
`acid.
`C14Hs02(OH)2N02 = 285.1.
`ex- or
`nitroalizarin.
`(3-
`4,1,2- Yellow
`or
`crystals,
`decomp.
`290.
`3,1,2- Alizarin
`crystals,
`orange.
`Orange-yellow
`soluble
`in
`decomp.
`244, slightly
`soluble
`in water,
`alcohol;
`used as dye,
`and as an intermediate
`in
`organic synthesis.
`.
`nitroamine.
`Nitramine
`C6H.(OMe)NO. = 153.1.
`ortho-
`nitroanisole.
`I-Methoxy-2-nitrobenzene.
`Yellow liquid, d.!.268.
`m.9, b.265.
`meta- m.38,
`b.258.
`para- Colorless
`or yellowish plates, d.!.233, m.54, b.258.
`Insoluble
`in water,
`soluble in alcohol or ether.
`C14H.N02 = 223.2. Nitroso-
`nitroanthracene.
`anthrone.
`Yellow needles, m.146,
`insoluble
`in
`water,
`soluble
`in benzene or chloroform.
`C6H.(CO)2C6RaN02 = 253.1.
`nitroanthraquinone.
`Ch or 1- Yellow needles, m.228,
`subliming when
`heated,
`insoluble
`in water,
`soluble
`in alcohol
`or
`(3- or 2- Yellow needles, m.184,
`ether.
`subliming
`when heated,
`insoluble
`in water,
`soluble
`in alcohol
`or ether.
`acid. A reagent
`n. sulfonic
`A soil
`bacterium
`Nitrobacter_
`organism that oxidizes ammonia
`or
`atmospheric
`nitrogen,
`to
`trates.
`Soil bacteria;
`nitrobacteria.
`sococcus, or Nitrosomonas.
`barium nitrate.
`nitrobarite.
`A native
`Ba(NOa)2'
`= 151.1.
`nitro benzaldehyde.
`C6H.(N02)CHO
`ortho- Yellow needles, m.44,
`slightly
`soluble
`in
`water.
`meta-
`Colorless
`needles,
`m.58.
`para-
`Colorless prisms, m.106,
`soluble
`in water;
`used in
`indigo synthesis.
`
`for sugars.
`or
`other micro-
`and its derivatives,
`nitrites
`or
`ni-
`
`as, Nitrobacter,
`
`Nitro-
`
`Page 3 of 3
`
`

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