throbber
HACKH'S
`
`CFIEMICAL
`DICTIONARY
`
`fAmerican and British Usagel
`
`Containing the Words Generally Used in Chemístry,
`and Møny of the Terms Used in the Related
`Sciences of Physics, Astrophysics, Mineralogy,
`Pharmacy, Agriculture, Biology,
`Medicine, Engineering, etc.
`
`Based on Recent Chemical Literature
`
`F'OURTH EDITION
`Completely Revised and Edited by
`
`JULIUS GRANT
`
`M.SC., PH.D., F,R.LC. CHEMICAL CONSULTANT
`
`McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY
`New York St. Louis San Franoisco Düsselilort Johannesburg
`Kualä Lumpur Lonrlon Merico Montreal New Delhi
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`
`T
`
`Itt
`
`tfacture
`
`Page 1 of 3
`
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`

`

`HACKH'S CHEMICAL DICTIONAR'Y
`Copyright @ 1969 by McGraw-Hill' Inc'
`elt nigttts Reserved'
`Copyright renewed 1972by Julius Grant'
`Copyright 1944' 1937' 1929 by McGraw-Hill' Inc'
`AII Rights n""""'"'t]='p'j;;åJ;" thå unitect states of America'
`N. p"ï;i ;;;,;y:"1*i,äîi";îj;'.*::Uïf;:å::trievar svstem'
`i::ä'Hi ;t' Jïå"pt i"e' .'""o'a.i'g'
`or otherw i se'
`wilhoul trt" p"itîäilt"" pã"ttti"tiott of the publisher'
`"r""t"o,,ål
`Library oJ Congress Catøl'og Carrl Number 6f 'f 8726
`07 -024064'1
`
`9l-ol-L-MAMM-8432
`
`Page 2 of 3
`
`

`

`SOLVENT
`
`SOI¿VOI¡YSIS
`
`625
`
`souNn
`
`ecovored on oveporaüion, tho solvent bv
`rn. Cl. chenical s. physiological- IsJ_
`saturateal- A s. that normally contains
`imum amount, of substance ablo to be
`. solid- Seo soZdd solut,ion, sosoloid.
`A s. that contains a definito amount of
`: dissolved; as, a molar, stsnalaralizeal-
`lsted to a known concontration. gupg¡-
`- A s. that contains e greeter quantity of
`n can normally bs dissolved at, a given
`ure; on slow cooling, the excess precipitates
`table conditions. test- T.S. A reagent s.
`ic- V.S. A standard analytical s., usually
`,g l, |, or fi mole of a substanco clissolved
`of weter.
`tng. Winning soluble salts (as potassiur¡
`by pumping water into the formation and
`ing the resulting soluüion. Cf. lvrqsch
`S. Bressure, The tendency of aüoms or
`r to mix with a liquid, or to dissolve in it;
`t by the osmotic pressuro. s. tension.
`ency of atoms or molecules to dissolve in
`ivith ionization; moasured by the electro-
`,rco. See Nernst'ttheo¡y. S. theoly. See
`lheory, Arrkenius' theory,
`molecular or ionic complex of molecules
`'solvent with those of solute; as Cl(HrO)r-.
`are surrounded by a zone of orionted
`rlecules. crystalline- A crysüal containing
`&s part of its
`lettice. s. theory.
`ormalities of solutions arc due to the
`n of complexes bebwoen the ions or
`s ofthe soluüe and solvonü. Cf, hyd,ration.
`A conbination between solute and soìvent,;
`tor is water, hydrates or hydrated ions are
`t.9., ilI(II2Oìr,.
`mism, Tho format'ion, by molecular
`of a colored complex (solvate) betweon
`molecules of organic compounds and
`rther compounds.
`rst. 1838-1922. Belgian industrial che-
`, process. Making sodium carbonato
`um chloride by treating sodium chlorido
`monia and carbon dioxide. Tho sodium
`ate produced is heated, and some carbon
`:ecovered; úhe arnmonia is recovorecl by
`ragnesia.
`l) That component ol' a homogeneous
`which is excess. (2) A liquid which
`enother substanco (solute), generally a
`hout, âny change in chemical composition;
`r containing sugar. (3) A liquid that
`a substanco by chemical roaclion; as, acids
`als. acitl- A s, that acts as an acid by
`proton to the soluto. Aqueous- Weter.
`[g- A s. whose moleoules form comploxes;
`, Cf, bond,. basic- A s. that acts as e
`gaining a proton from the solute. chêm'
`e (3). ionizing- Seo pol¿¡-s.lacquer-
`liquids used to dissolvo resins and nitro'
`: tow-boiling- b, below 100 (alcohol).
`'niLing- b. near 125 (toluene¡. åigå-
`b. lõ0-200 (xylcne). plastici:ers ano
`b. near 300 (camphor). molten- Flux'
`iating- A s. ühat <loes not form complexes
`its molecules or ions and the solute; es,
`nonaqueous- ,A' solvent other then
`tronionizing- Nonpoìar. nonpol&r- A s'
`
`thaü does nol conduct an olectric curront; as,
`hydrocarbons. noÌm&l-Nono,ssociating. physical-
`A s. that does not reacü chomically with the soluto.
`polar- A s. that produces eìoctrically conducting
`soluúions (as, water), and causes dissociation of tho
`solute into ions. twO-type- A s. having 2 groups
`which confer s. properties; as alcohol-ethers,
`HO.R,.O.Ii, e,g., Cellosolvo, universal- Aqua regie.
`s. action, A process of making substances
`water-solubìe
`solvolysis. The offect of the acid or basic charactsr
`of a solvent on the ionization of a sålú dissolved in it.
`solvolytic. Pertaining to solvation, s. dissociAtion.
`Ionization in a nonaqueous soluùion. Cf. soluate
`thoory.
`sombrerite. A "hard" minoral phosphatø (351
`phosphorus pentoxide); & sourco of phosphorus,
`Sommelet reactiou. The production of benzaldohyde
`by tho reaction beiweon bonzylamino and form"
`aldehyde, preferably in prosonco of hoxamino.
`Sommerfeltl, Arnolal. I 868-l g5 1. German physicisü;
`doveloped the quantum thoory ofatomic süructu¡e.
`S. notation. Sao quantum numbers.
`Somnal. CTHlsNOsCl¡ : 264.49. An othyl doriva-
`tive of chloral ureühane; a hypnotic and diurotic.
`somnifecient. A hypnotic, q.v,
`Somnifene. Trademark for a solublo barbiüurats
`sedativo-hypnotic.
`somnilol. CssII44O? : 540.34, A monohydric al-
`colrol of Wöthani,a spocios (Solanacoae).
`Somnitol. C'3H46O? : 554.32. Trade namo for a
`alcohol from Wi,thani,a species (Solanaoeae).
`Somnol. C0HlrO6Cl0: õf8.2. Trade nano for
`chloreühanaf ¿lcoholal,e; a hypnotic.
`Somnos. Tradomark fo¡ chlorethanal alcohol.
`soDelyl, Neonel, Butobarbitono (neonal).
`gg¡ig. Phonic, Cf. sound.
`Sonnenschein, Franz Leopokl. l8l9-1879. Gorman
`forensic analyst. S,ts reagent. A solution of
`phosphomolybdic acid forms a yollow prêcipi¿ete
`with the sulfates of alkaloids.
`sonoluminesconcg. Luminescsncs induced by sound
`w&vgs,
`sonometor. Phonometer, An instrument to môes-
`uro sound vibrations.
`sonola, gum. Tho oxudaúions of tho croosote bush,
`C o uillea triilentard (Mexico ).
`soot. An impure black carbon containing oily and
`ompyroumatic compounds from tho incompleto
`combusüion of reginous materials or wood. It
`contains hydrocarbons, and if derived from coal,
`ammonium sulfate. Cf. lømpblack.
`sophol, A yellow compound of silvor and mothy-
`ìonsnucloinic acid; used modicinally.
`sophota. Coraì bean. The poisonous soods of
`Sopkora species (Loguminosao), fndia. S. tomen-
`tosa. A leguminous shrub (Jopan); a romody for
`cholera and diarrhea.
`¡ophorine. An alkaloid from Sophora spocios.
`Colorless ìiquid resembling cyúisino and matrine.
`Cf, kuhseng,
`sopoliûc. An agont thal, producos deep sleep, Cf.
`hypnotic.
`sorbet. Sherbet.
`sorbic acial. Mo.CH:CH.CH.CH.COOH :
`l12.t.
`Hexadienic acid, pontadienecarboxylic acid,, 2,4-
`hexadionoic acid*, from tho unripe berries of
`mountain æh, Soröør. Colorless noedlos, m.l 84,
`
`b.228 (decomp.), solublo in water; a solsctivo
`fungistatic for certain foods. hyil¡o- Iloxonio
`acid+. methyleneilioxyphenyl-Pipericacid. Xrara-
`A lactone-liko body forming sorbic aoid when
`heatecl wiüh acid o¡ alkali.
`sorbin. Sorbinose.
`sorbinose. c6H1200 : 180,1. sorbin, 1,3,4,5,6-
`ponlahydroxy.2-hexanonei, sorboss. An opti-
`cally activo carbohydrato from tho f¡uits- of
`mountain ash, Sorðøs, Colorless rhombs, m.154;
`slightly solublo in wator.
`sorbite, (l) Sorbitol, (2) A mixture offorrito and
`comontito, with conglomorotions of carbon in
`steol; a transition form bstwoon poarliúo and
`troostito.
`sorbitol. CsH,40s'+HsO :
`l9l.l. Sorbito, 1,2,3,
`4,5,6-hoxanohexol*. An alcohol isomer of man-
`nitol f¡om Sorbus aucupard¿. Colorless crystals,
`m.lll, solublo in wator. Used chiofly for tho
`preparation of ascorbic acid (U,S.P.); also as a
`humecten¿ and in surfaotants, pharmacouticals,
`foods and rigid polymoúhano foams.
`Sorbol. CrnHroO:494.õ. Trado namo for &n
`alcohol, m,78, from the wax of tho berries of
`Sorbus aucultariø.
`sorbose. Sorbinoso.
`sotbus. Ilowân troe, mountain ash. Tho tros
`Pyrus (Sorbus or Mespílusl aucuparia (Il,osacoae).
`A decocüion of the bark contains sorbitol and
`sorbinose; used to treat diarrhoa.
`Sorel cement. MgO.MgClr.llHrO. A hard, quiok-
`sotting mixturo of magnesium oxido and a con-
`contratod solution of magnesium chlorido. S.
`tlentsl cement. A mixturo of zinc oxido, zino
`ohlorido, and fino sand, S. floor cement. A
`mixturo of magnesium oxide, zinc chlorido, and.
`portìand cemênt, usod for floors; l0l
`coppor
`powder makos it watorproof.
`Sörensen, Sören P. L. 1868-1939. Danish chemist.
`S.intlicato¡s, A group of hydrogon-ion-ooncontr&-
`tion indicators, q.v. S, phosphate. Dibasio sod-
`ium phosphato, S. symbols. Soe p.F1. S. v¿lue.
`Hydrogon-ion ooncentroúion.
`Soret effect, S. principle. Ludwig phonomonon.
`When difforences of temporaturo aro maintained
`in a salü solution, tho solute will conconürato in tho
`coolest, parts.
`sorethyton, U.S.P. namo for polysorbate.S0.
`gorghu¡n. A cano, And,ropogon sorghum or Sorghum
`aulgare, ftom which a sugar and Indian millst
`(African, durra) are obtainod.
`solgo, Sorghum aulgøre,
`sorption. A reaction on a surfaco, espooially øösor1o-
`ti,on, c1,v,, or solution, adsorpttdom, q,v., ønd, pøraorp-
`t'ion (pørmeøtion into e very porous solid). Cf.
`momomoleculor film. ab- Soo absorption. ad- See
`adsorption. re- Søø resorpti,on, C0, zone.
`souel. Tho loaves of Rumez acetosa (Polygonaceao);
`a rofrigoranü and diuretic. S. solt. poüassium
`bioxalaóe.
`sosoloid. Solid solution. One solid phaso disporsod.
`in another. Søo coll,oid,al syúems.
`Soubeiron, Eugène. 179?-1858. Fronch apotho-
`oary; discovorer of chloroform,
`Sounal. (l) Air oscillations or vibrations ühat offsct
`üho oar and aro rondorod audible. Cf, mu¿öcøL
`notæ. (2) Vibrations in air or othor modium which
`may or may not be audiblo; as,inJraphonda (longot
`
`Page 3 of 3
`
`

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