throbber
To:
`
`Subject:
`
`Sent:
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`Sent As:
`
`Attachments:
`
`Select Equine Mercantile (admin@txem.co)
`
`U.S. TRADEMARK APPLICATION NO. 86468054 - VETERINARY STRENGTH LINIMENT DRAW -
`N/A
`
`3/18/2015 6:30:19 PM
`
`ECOM115@USPTO.GOV
`
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`Attachment - 36
`
`UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE (USPTO)
`OFFICE ACTION (OFFICIAL LETTER) ABOUT APPLICANT’S TRADEMARK APPLICATION
`
`U.S. APPLICATION SERIAL NO.   86468054
`
`           
`
`MARK: VETERINARY STRENGTH LINIMENT
`DRAW
`
`*86468054*
`


`

`

`CORRESPONDENT ADDRESS:
`  
`       SELECT EQUINE MERCANTILE
`  
`       SELECT EQUINE MERCANTILE
`         7
`           798 SANDLIN LN
`    
`    SPRINGTOWN, TX 76082
`
`CLICK HERE TO RESPOND TO THIS
`LETTER:
`http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/teas/response_forms.jsp
`
`VIEW YOUR APPLICATION FILE
`
`APPLICANT: Select Equine Mercantile
`
`    
`
`CORRESPONDENT’S REFERENCE/DOCKET
`
`  N/A
`
`   
`
`NO:       
`CORRESPONDENT E-MAIL ADDRESS:       
`
`admin@txem.co
`
`OFFICE ACTION
`
`STRICT DEADLINE TO RESPOND TO THIS LETTER
`TO AVOID ABANDONMENT OF APPLICANT’S TRADEMARK APPLICATION, THE USPTO MUST RECEIVE APPLICANT’S
`COMPLETE RESPONSE TO THIS LETTER WITHIN 6 MONTHS OF THE ISSUE/MAILING DATE BELOW.
`
`ISSUE/MAILING DATE: 3/18/2015
`
`The referenced application has been reviewed by the assigned trademark examining attorney.  Applicant must respond timely and completely to
`the issue(s) below.  15 U.S.C. §1062(b); 37 C.F.R. §§2.62(a), 2.65(a); TMEP §§711, 718.03.
`
`SEARCH OF OFFICE’S DATABASE OF MARKS
`
`The trademark examining attorney has searched the Office’s database of registered and pending marks and has found no conflicting marks that
`would bar registration under Trademark Act Section 2(d).  TMEP §704.02; see 15 U.S.C. §1052(d).
`
`SUMMARY OF ISSUES that applicant must address:
`
`Refusal – Mark Differs on Drawing and Specimen
`Refusal – Specimen Does Not Show Use in Commerce
`Requirement – Amend Mark Description
`Requirement – Disclaimer
`Requirement – Amend Identification of Goods
`
`REFUSAL – MARK DIFFERS ON DRAWING AND SPECIMEN
`
`Registration is refused because the specimen does not show the applied-for mark in the drawing in use in commerce in International Class 5. 
`Trademark Act Sections 1 and 45, 15 U.S.C. §§1051, 1127; 37 C.F.R. §§2.34(a)(1)(iv), 2.56(a); TMEP §§904, 904.07(a), 1301.04(g)(i). 
`Specifically, the specimen displays the mark as a design with only the words “DRAW IT OUT” at the top; however, the drawing displays the
`mark as a design with the words “VETERINARY STRENGTH LINIMENT” above “DRAW IT OUT”.
`
`The drawing shows the mark sought to be registered, and must be a substantially exact representation of the mark as used on or in connection
`with the goods and/or services, as shown by the specimen.  37 C.F.R. §2.51(a); TMEP §807.12(a).  Because the mark in the drawing is not a
`substantially exact representation of the mark on the specimen, applicant has failed to provide the required evidence of use of the applied-for
`
`mark in commerce on or in connection with applicant’s goods and/or services.   See TMEP §807.12(a).  
`
`An application based on Trademark Act Section 1(a) must include a specimen showing the applied-for mark in use in commerce for each
`international class of goods and/or services identified in the application or amendment to allege use.  15 U.S.C. §1051(a)(1); 37 C.F.R.
`
`§§2.34(a)(1)(iv), 2.56(a); TMEP §§904, 904.07(a).  
`
`Examples of specimens for goods include tags, labels, instruction manuals, containers, photographs that show the mark on the actual goods or
`packaging, and displays associated with the actual goods at their point of sale.  See TMEP §§904.03 et seq.  Webpages may also be specimens
`for goods when they include a picture or textual description of the goods associated with the mark and the means to order the goods.  TMEP
`§904.03(i). 
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`Applicant may respond to this refusal by satisfying one of the following for each applicable international class:
`
`(1)  Submit a new drawing of the mark that agrees with the mark on the specimen and, if appropriate, an amendment to the color claim
`
`and/or mark description that conforms to the new drawing.  
`
`(2)  Submit a different specimen (a verified “substitute” specimen) that (a) was in actual use in commerce at least as early as the filing
`date of the application or prior to the filing of an amendment to allege use and (b) shows the mark or a substantially exact representation
`of the mark in the drawing in actual use in commerce for the goods and/or services identified in the application.
`
`For an overview of both response options referenced above and instructions on how to satisfy either option online using the Trademark Electronic
`Application System (TEAS) form, please go to http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/law/J3.jsp.
`
`REFUSAL – SPECIMEN DOES NOT SHOW USE IN COMMERCE
`
`Registration is refused because the specimen does not show the applied-for mark in use in commerce in connection with the goods identified in
`the application.  Trademark Act Sections 1 and 45, 15 U.S.C. §§1051, 1127; 37 C.F.R. §§2.34(a)(1)(iv), 2.56(a); TMEP §§904, 904.07(a). 
`Specifically, the specimen appears to be a label for a liquid soak.  However, the goods list topical creams, gels, salves, sprays, powder, balms,
`
`liniment and ointment.  
`
`An application based on Trademark Act Section 1(a) must include a specimen showing the applied-for mark in use in commerce for each
`international class of goods identified in the application or amendment to allege use.  15 U.S.C. §1051(a)(1); 37 C.F.R. §§2.34(a)(1)(iv), 2.56(a);
`
`TMEP §§904, 904.07(a).  
`
`Examples of specimens for goods include tags, labels, instruction manuals, containers, photographs that show the mark on the actual goods or
`packaging, and displays associated with the actual goods at their point of sale.  See TMEP §§904.03 et seq.  Webpages may also be specimens
`for goods when they include a picture or textual description of the goods associated with the mark and the means to order the goods.  TMEP
`§904.03(i).  However, leaflets, handbills, advertising circulars, and other advertising materials generally are not acceptable specimens for goods. 
`See TMEP §§904.03 et seq.
`
`Applicant may respond to this refusal by satisfying one of the following for each applicable international class:
`
`(1)  Submit a different specimen (a verified “substitute” specimen) that (a) was in actual use in commerce at least as early as the filing
`date of the application or prior to the filing of an amendment to allege use and (b) shows the mark in actual use in commerce for the
`
`goods identified in the application or amendment to allege use.  
`
`(2)  Amend the filing basis to intent to use under Section 1(b), for which no specimen is required.  This option will later necessitate
`additional fee(s) and filing requirements such as providing a specimen.
`
`For an overview of both response options referenced above and instructions on how to satisfy either option online using the Trademark Electronic
`Application System (TEAS) form, please go to http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/law/specimen.jsp.
`
`If applicant responds to the refusals, applicant must also respond to the requirements set forth below.
`
`REQUIREMENT – AMEND DESCRIPTION OF MARK
`
`Applicant has submitted a color drawing and provided a color claim, but has not provided the required description specifying where color appears
`in the literal and design elements in the mark.  See 37 C.F.R. §§2.37, 2.52(b)(1); TMEP §807.07(a)-(a)(ii).
`
`Generic color names must be used to describe the colors in the mark, e.g., magenta, yellow, turquoise.  TMEP §807.07(a)(i)-(ii).  If black, white,
`and/or gray are not being claimed as a color feature of the mark, applicant must exclude them from the color claim and include in the mark
`description a statement that the colors black, white, and/or gray represent background, outlining, shading, and/or transparent areas and are not
`part of the mark.  See TMEP §807.07(d).
`
`Therefore, applicant must provide a mark description that specifies where all the colors appear in the literal and design elements in the mark.  See
`TMEP §807.07(a)(ii).  The following is suggested, if accurate:
`
`The mark consists of the wording “VETERINARY STRENGTH LINIMENT” in black above “DRAW IT OUT” in red with
`black shadow and a white border placed in front of the top corner of a gray diamond with a black border.  A white diamond
`



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`

`

`appears in each of the left, right and bottom corners of the black border.   The wording “ANTI-INFLAMMATORY” appears in
`white in the bottom left-hand border and the wording “FAST PAIN RELIEF” appears in white in the bottom right-hand
`border.  Encompassed within the gray diamond is a yellow map of the State of Texas with a black and white border behind three
`black horses outlined in white.
`
`REQUIREMENT – DISCLAIMER
`
`Applicant must disclaim the wording “VETERINARY STRENGTH LINIMENT”, “ANTI-INFLAMMATORY” and “FAST PAIN RELIEF”
`because it merely describes a quality, function and/or feature of applicant’s goods, and thus is an unregistrable component of the mark.  See 15
`U.S.C. §§1052(e)(1), 1056(a); DuoProSS Meditech Corp. v. Inviro Med. Devices, Ltd., 695 F.3d 1247, 1251, 103 USPQ2d 1753, 1755 (Fed. Cir.
`
`2012) (quoting In re Oppedahl & Larson LLP, 373 F.3d 1171, 1173, 71 USPQ2d 1370, 1371 (Fed. Cir. 2004)); TMEP §§1213, 1213.03(a).  
`
`  Additionally, the attached evidence from LAMBERT VET
`The wording “LINIMENT” appears in applicant’s identification of goods.
`SUPPLY, BIO-GROOM, and BLAIN’S FARM & FLEET shows that “VETERINARY STRENGTH” is commonly used in connection with
`similar goods to indicate that veterinary products contain a certain concentration of medicine that effectively treats wounds, swelling and other
`conditions.  Therefore, the wording merely describes a quality or feature of applicant’s goods, i.e., that its liniments contain a more effective
`formula for treatment of health conditions.
`
`The attached evidence from Merriam-Webster shows that “ANTI-INFLAMMATORY” means “used to control or reduce inflammation”.
`Therefore, the wording merely describes a feature or function of applicant’s goods, namely, that the topical products function to control or
`reduce inflammation.
`
`The attached evidence from Merriam-Webster shows that the wording in “FAST PAIN RELIEF” is defined as follows:  
`FAST means “happening quickly : taking a short amount of time”
`PAIN means “the physical feeling caused by disease, injury, or something that hurts the body”
`RELIEF means “the removal or reducing of something that is painful or unpleasant”
`
`Therefore, the wording merely describes a feature or function of applicant’s goods, namely, that the topical products quickly remove or reduce
`the physical feeling caused by disease, injury or something that hurts the body.
`
`Additionally, applicant must disclaim the design of the State of Texas because it is primarily geographically descriptive of the origin of
`applicant’s goods, and thus is an unregistrable component of the mark.  See 15 U.S.C. §§1052(e)(2), 1056(a); In re Societe Generale des Eaux
`Minerales de Vittel S.A., 824 F.2d 957, 959, 3 USPQ2d 1450, 1451-52 (Fed. Cir. 1987); In re Joint-Stock Co. “Baik”, 80 USPQ2d 1305, 1309
`
`(TTAB 2006); TMEP §§1210.01(a), 1213, 1213.03(a), (c).  
`
`An accurate picture or design of geographically descriptive matter and the word or words that describe the design are legal equivalents;
`therefore, the design must be disclaimed pursuant to the same rules applicable to primarily geographically descriptive wording.  See In re Can.
`Dry Ginger Ale, Inc., 86 F.2d 830, 832, 32 USPQ 49, 50 (C.C.P.A. 1936) (holding that a mark comprising a map of Canada is equivalent to the
`
`word “Canada” and not registrable as it is primarily geographically descriptive of applicant’s soft drinks); TMEP §1210.02(a).   
`
`The design of the State of Texas is the legal equivalent of the geographic place or location named Texas.  The attached evidence from Columbia
`Gazetteer shows that Texas is a generally known geographic place or location.  See TMEP §§1210.02 et seq.  The goods for which applicant
`seeks registration originate in this geographic place or location as shown by applicant’s address and the state of incorporation.  See TMEP
`§1210.03.  Purchasers are likely to believe the goods originate in this geographic place or location because, as shown in the specimen, the label
`on applicant’s goods says “MADE IN THE USA” near a Texas state flag.
`
`  See TMEP §§1210.04 et seq.  
`
`An applicant may not claim exclusive rights to designs that others may need to use to describe or show their goods, including the geographic
`origin thereof, in the marketplace.  See Dena Corp. v. Belvedere Int’l, Inc., 950 F.2d 1555, 1560, 21 USPQ2d 1047, 1051 (Fed. Cir. 1991); In re
`Aug. Storck KG, 218 USPQ 823, 825 (TTAB 1983).  A disclaimer of unregistrable matter does not affect the appearance of the mark; that is, a
`disclaimer does not physically remove the disclaimed matter from the mark.  See Schwarzkopf v. John H. Breck, Inc., 340 F.2d 978, 978, 144
`
`USPQ 433, 433 (C.C.P.A. 1965); TMEP §1213.  
`
`If applicant does not provide the required disclaimer, the USPTO may refuse to register the entire mark.  See In re Stereotaxis Inc., 429 F.3d
`1039, 1040-41, 77 USPQ2d 1087, 1088-89 (Fed. Cir. 2005); TMEP §1213.01(b).
`
`Applicant should submit a disclaimer in the following standardized format:
`
`No claim is made to the exclusive right to use “VETERINARY STRENGTH LINIMENT”, “ANTI-INFLAMMATORY”, “FAST
`PAIN RELIEF” and the pictorial representation of the State of Texas apart from the mark as shown.
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`

`

`For an overview of disclaimers and instructions on how to satisfy this disclaimer requirement online using the Trademark Electronic Application
`System (TEAS) form, please go to http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/law/disclaimer.jsp.
`
`REQUIREMENT – AMEND IDENTIFICATION OF GOODS
`
`The identification of goods is indefinite and must be clarified because it does not specify that the goods are for veterinary purposes.  See TMEP
`
`§1402.01.  Applicant may adopt the following identification, if accurate:     
`Herbal topical creams, gels, salves, sprays, powder, balms, liniment and ointments for the relief of aches and pain for
`Class 5:           
`veterinary purposes
`
`An applicant may only amend an identification to clarify or limit the goods, but not to add to or broaden the scope of the goods.  37 C.F.R.
`
`§2.71(a); see TMEP §§1402.06 et seq., 1402.07.  
`
`For assistance with identifying and classifying goods and services in trademark applications, please see the USPTO’s online searchable U.S.
`Acceptable Identification of Goods and Services Manual at http://tess2.uspto.gov/netahtml/tidm.html.   See TMEP §1402.04.
`
`RESPONSE GUIDELINES
`
`For this application to proceed toward registration, applicant must explicitly address each refusal and/or requirement raised in this Office action. 
`If the action includes a refusal, applicant may provide arguments and/or evidence as to why the refusal should be withdrawn and the mark should
`register.  Applicant may also have other options for responding to a refusal and should consider such options carefully.  To respond to
`requirements and certain refusal response options, applicant should set forth in writing the required changes or statements.
`
`If applicant does not respond to this Office action within six months of the issue/mailing date, or responds by expressly abandoning the
`application, the application process will end, the trademark will fail to register, and the application fee will not be refunded.  See 15 U.S.C.
`§1062(b); 37 C.F.R. §§2.65(a), 2.68(a), 2.209(a); TMEP §§405.04, 718.01, 718.02.  Where the application has been abandoned for failure to
`respond to an Office action, applicant’s only option would be to file a timely petition to revive the application, which, if granted, would allow
`the application to return to active status.  See 37 C.F.R. §2.66; TMEP §1714.  There is a $100 fee for such petitions.  See 37 C.F.R. §§2.6,
`2.66(b)(1).
`
`If applicant has questions regarding this Office action, please telephone or e-mail the assigned trademark examining attorney.  All relevant e-
`mail communications will be placed in the official application record; however, an e-mail communication will not be accepted as a response to
`this Office action and will not extend the deadline for filing a proper response.  See 37 C.F.R. §§2.62(c), 2.191; TMEP §§304.01-.02, 709.04-.05. 
`Further, although the trademark examining attorney may provide additional explanation pertaining to the refusal(s) and/or requirement(s) in this
`Office action, the trademark examining attorney may not provide legal advice or statements about applicant’s rights.   See TMEP §§705.02,
`709.06.
`
`TEAS PLUS OR TEAS REDUCED FEE (TEAS RF) APPLICANTS – TO MAINTAIN LOWER FEE, ADDITIONAL
`REQUIREMENTS MUST BE MET, INCLUDING SUBMITTING DOCUMENTS ONLINE:  Applicants who filed their application
`online using the lower-fee TEAS Plus or TEAS RF application form must (1) file certain documents online using TEAS, including responses to
`Office actions (see TMEP §§819.02(b), 820.02(b) for a complete list of these documents); (2) maintain a valid e-mail correspondence address;
`and (3) agree to receive correspondence from the USPTO by e-mail throughout the prosecution of the application.  See 37 C.F.R. §§2.22(b),
`2.23(b); TMEP §§819, 820.  TEAS Plus or TEAS RF applicants who do not meet these requirements must submit an additional processing fee of
`$50 per international class of goods and/or services.  37 C.F.R. §§2.6(a)(1)(v), 2.22(c), 2.23(c); TMEP §§819.04, 820.04.  However, in certain
`situations, TEAS Plus or TEAS RF applicants may respond to an Office action by authorizing an examiner’s amendment by telephone without
`
`incurring this additional fee.   
`
`/Andrea B. Cornwell/
`Examining Attorney
`Law Office 115
`(571) 272-4608
`andrea.cornwell@uspto.gov
`
`TO RESPOND TO THIS LETTER:   Go to http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/teas/response_forms.jsp.   Please wait 48-72 hours from the
`issue/mailing date before using the Trademark Electronic Application System (TEAS), to allow for necessary system updates of the application. 
`For technical assistance with online forms, e-mail TEAS@uspto.gov.  For questions about the Office action itself, please contact the assigned
`trademark examining attorney.  E-mail communications will not be accepted as responses to Office actions; therefore, do not respond to
`
`  


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`this Office action by e-mail.
`
`All informal e-mail communications relevant to this application will be placed in the official application record.
`
`WHO MUST SIGN THE RESPONSE:  It must be personally signed by an individual applicant or someone with legal authority to bind an
`applicant (i.e., a corporate officer, a general partner, all joint applicants).  If an applicant is represented by an attorney, the attorney must sign the
`
`response.  
`PERIODICALLY CHECK THE STATUS OF THE APPLICATION:   To ensure that applicant does not miss crucial deadlines or official
`notices, check the status of the application every three to four months using the Trademark Status and Document Retrieval (TSDR) system at
`http://tsdr.uspto.gov/.   Please keep a copy of the TSDR status screen.   If the status shows no change for more than six months, contact the
`Trademark Assistance Center by e-mail at TrademarkAssistanceCenter@uspto.gov or call 1-800-786-9199.   For more information on checking
`status, see http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/process/status/.
`
`TO UPDATE CORRESPONDENCE/E-MAIL ADDRESS:  Use the TEAS form at http://www.uspto.gov/trademarks/teas/correspondence.jsp.
`



`  
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`httpflwww.cclumbiauazetteer.urufmainNiewPlaceffifl427433
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`031812015 05 39.45 PM
`
`Site Provided by US. Patent and Trademark Ofice
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`031812015 05 39.45 PM
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`ThelirstregiontobefarmedwhenAmericanscametoTexasinthe 1820s wasthe
`bottoms offlielowerBrazos and the Colorado rivers, but not until settlers moved
`intofliemllingblacklandprairimofcenu'alandflcentralTexaswasflie
`agricultural wealflioffliearearealizedJ‘heheartoffliis regionisthetradingand
`shippingoaita'ofWaco; atflieSWextranityisSanAntonio,flieconimfidalcaitfi
`ofawidecotton, grain, andcatflecomitry.Tofl1eN,flieareasurroundingDallas
`anditsneighboringdtyofFortWorthhasliecomeoneoffliemostrapidly
`develupiugseuliuus ufllieU.S.11ireirtrdditimlal industries ul'uilrdiuing, grain
`milling, and cottonandfoodprocessingweregreaflysupplementedinWorldWar II
`by huge aircrafi manuladuring, which continues today, and now includestiie
`higlktechnologycomputer and electronicsindustries. TheBalcones Escarpmmt
`marksflieWmarginofflie GnlfCoastal Plain; incentralTexasflielineisvisibleina
`seriesofrapids, springs, and rough, tree—coveredhills.Tofl1erieflieScentral
`
`plains andtlie Edwards Plateau' they are essentially extaisions ot'ttm Great Plains
`butaresharply dividetlfi'omfliehigli, windswept, and canyon—cut [Jana Estacado
`(Spanish=staked plains)intheWPanhandlebyflie erosive divisionofflie @rock
`Escarpment. Notraca offlie subtropical luslmms offlie GulfCoastal Plain are
`foundintliese regions;t:lieclimateis semiarid, withoccasionalblimrdshlowing
`acrossflieflatlandin winter.'l11eRedRiverareainN, including fliefarmingcenter
`
`ofW'lchita Falls mnhe extremely coldinwinter, though withoutflie severityfliatis
`intermittently experiencedinfliecommercialcenteroffliePanhandle,Amarillo or
`intlie dry—firmingarea around Lubbock.
`Northeast Region
`
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`
`NorflieastTexas (espedally Dallas—FortWorlh), other flianbeing onflieSmarginof
`winter snows, islinown foriisfi'equent and severe ice storms. Cattle ranching,
`whichbeganinthelate 1870s, stillconfinues, audhuge ranchesviewithextens've
`wheatand cottontarmsfordomiuafionofflietreelessland. Oilaudgrain,however,
`revolufiouizedflie economy offliissedionoi'fliestate.'flieaifireareaofTexasW
`aflooWisseniial-idtoarid.
`
`West Texas
`
`SouflioffliePanliandlelietherollingflainsaroundAhilene, aregionwliivatedin
`cotton, sorghum, andwheat, andtliesiteofnewer oilfieldsdiscovered inflie
`1940s.111edryfieldsofWTexasal-estillgiven overto ranching, exceptforsmall
`irrigatedaraasfliatcanbefarmed. SanAngglo servesastliecomnieru'alwnterof
`this area.'I'heMidland—Odessa oil patch (one od'tlie world’spremier cilfieldsflies
`NEoftliePecos River andispartoffliePermianMTexas)Basin, wliichextends
`intoSENew Mexico.'l'lielandbeyoudfl1el'ecosltiver, risingtofliemountainswith
`high, sweepingplainsandroufliuplands, ofirstheliuestsceueryofTexas. Intlie
`farWare severalisolatedmountain ranges, extensions oftlieRofl Mountain
`System, indudingflienazishdmntainsandmadalnnemmainsfinadalnnefleak.
`nearflieNewMexicoboundary, isflieliigliestpoiutinfliestate(8,751fij2,667m).
`MostofflieserangesaresurmundedbyfiieNpartoffliedfihuahuanDesert, noted
`fioritssparsescrubby vegdafionandsaltpanthewilda-nessoffliefiigflend oftlle
`RioGrmdeistypicaloffliebafleuuessofmostofflfisarea,whuewatermdpeople
`arealmost equally scarce. ElPaso, afliriviugdtyofdiverseiudustries andan
`importaflcafiwoftadewifliflmdmfisapopulafimoasisinfliatdfiolatemgion.
`Economy
`
`Intliestateasawhole, mineralresonrcescompdewithindusu'yforprimary
`econonficimportance.Texasisflieweahlfiestmheralproducerhflieuafim;its
`diiefniineralsareoil, naturalgas, andnaturalgasliquids.Texasistlieuation‘s
`secondleadingpeu'oleumstate, andranlislirstintheprodudionoi'naturalgasand
`naturalgasliquids.'l'liestateisalsoamajor producer oflielium, salt, sulfiir, sodium
`sulfate, clays, gypsum, ceineut,liu1estoue, andtalc. Texas produces anenormous
`variety ofproducts, including chemicals, petroleum, food products, transportation
`equipment, machinery, andprimaryandfabricazted metalsJ'hemanufactureaud
`research and developimmt ofliigli—technology electronic equipment, suchas
`computers,liasbecomeoneofthe state’sleadingindustries.Agriculturally,Texas
`isoueofflie mostimportantstatesinflie country. largelybecauseofils size,it
`easilyleadstherestoftliecountryinthe production ofcattle, cotton, and
`cottonseed, auditrankssecoudinflie growing ofvegetables, watermelous, and
`strawberria.Texasliasniorefarms,farmland, sheep, audlamllsfliananycflier
`state. OtlierlivestockincludesAngora goats, hogs, andpoultry(espe&ially intlie
`NE); rafiteraisiugmstriches, emus, rheas)liashecomepopularin manyEcouuties.
`(Hieragl'icnlturoindudes sorghum grain, dtrusfi'uiis, wheat, pecans, peanuts,
`oats, barley, hay, corn, rice, peaches, apples, and dairy products. Wool and mohair
`
`Prindpalcatdiesareslirimp, oysters, crabs, andmenhaden. Crawlish, catfish, and
`alligatorsareaquafirmedinflneSE.Houstonisacenterfor aeropsace,hiomedical
`research, andpetrodiemicals.'fliePortofHoustonisamongthebusiest
`commeridalportsinflieworld. Dallasishometolargeiuformationtechnologyaud
`defenseindustriesJ'exasissecoudoi'allUS. statesinitsnumberofFortune 500
`companiesandisflieleadingstateintermsoi'export revenues.
`History to 1836
`
`'IliefirstSpanishsdflementinflie regiontliatis nowTexaswasmade(1632)at
`film nnflip. site afFl Pam. Smmral missions were established in Hip. arm: linttlie
`
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`031812015 05 39.45 PM
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`YsldzaonfliesiteofElPaso. Severalmissiouswereestablisliedinfliearea; butflie
`Comanche,theApaclie, andoflierNativeAmericantribmrmntedflieir
`encroadimeut,mdfliesdflemeutsdidnotfloufish.1hefirst-snon,foundedin
`1690uearfl1eNeches, wasnamedFrandscodelosTijasaflerflieso—calledrefas
`(:fi'imds)Na:tiveAmerimus. 'I'hisisalsoflieoriginoi'fliestate’sname. Bytheearly
`lgfll centuryAmericans were covetously eyeingTexas, especiallyafierthe
`InuisianaPurchase(1803). SteplieiiF. Austin(uiclmau1ed“fliefaiflierof‘l'exas”),in
`December 1321,1ed3mfamiliesacrossflle5abinetoflieregionbetweenflieflrazos
`and Colorado rivers, wherethey establishedflielirstAmericansdflemeutinTexas.
`The newlyiudependalt gova'umflit ofMexico, pleased withAustin’s prospa'iug
`colony, readilyoiferedgrautstooflierAmerieutrepreneursaudeveuhugelaud
`irzuisto individual sdders. Amaimnsfi'om all overflmeUnion, but parlieulzirly
`fiomtheSoufli,pmraliutoTexas,andwiflfinadecademusiderablesdflemeuts
`hadbeen established atBrazoria, Washingon—on—flJe—Brazos, San Felipe de
`Austin,Ariahuac audGonmles.
`History: 1836 to 1845
`
`Aflzertlie'l'exas Revolution, ataconveufionmllalatWashington—on—flie—Brazos
`(Mai-cli2, 1836), Texasdedareditsiudepeudeucefi'omMexico.Acoustitutionwas
`
`
`
`wiflialargearmyresultedinfliefamousdefeuseoftheAlamo andfliemassacreof
`severflhmdredTexmswpturedatGoliadjautaAnnafiimdifidalhisbugeforce
`[0 nova a iiiiidi la'rilury aspusside. 'fliesuiallTexas army, wuuiiauilulby
`SamuelHouston,protectedflia'rrearllanli, rdreating strategicallyunfilHouston
`finallymaneuveredSautaAunaiutoacul—de—sacformedbyheavyrainsaud
`floodingbayous, mfliesiteofpresait—dayHoiiston. InflieBaflleofSan—Jaciutn
`(April21, 1336),}Ioustonsurprisedflielargrflexicanforceandscoreda
`resoundingvictory. SautaAnuawascapturedaudcompelledtorecogiizeflie
`independenceoiTexas. TexanssouglitanuexationtoflieUS. butaufislavery
`forceshflieU.S.vdiemafllyopposalfliemlnfissimofanoflierslavesmte,and
`Texasrauainedanindepmdaitrepublicforalmosttmyears.
`History: 1845 to 1910
`PrefidemTylernaflowlypushalflieadnfissimofTexasmmughCongressshordy
`beforeilie expiraficn ofhisterin; Texas formally acmpted annexafioninJuly 1345.
`Thisactwasflieimmediatecauseoffilefleadcan—Ameii-Warlnfliedecades
`followingfliewarflieWesterndemeutinTexaswassUmgfllmalasstockraising
`becamedoufinamfllfiswasflieeraoffliebufialohmandoffliehstofflieNafive
`Americanapfising.mefl1eopenrangaudfl1enfi-omgreatfencedranches,
`Texas cowboys droveherds oflonghorn catfletoflie raillieadsinKaiisas, and even
`farthertofliegrasslandsofMontauaThe traditional symbolsofTexas—tlie
`“tai—gallon"hat,fl1ei:ifliebiand, andspursandsaddlm—arealsothetiadifioual
`symbolsoffliecldWest. Asrailroadsadvancedacrossfliestateduriugflie 1870s,
`farmlandswereincreasinglysettled. ManyEuropeanimmigrauts—gpecially
`Germansmdfloheluimsflizedismetoflveiniheflainshndfllisiuflux
`coutinuediutothe 20111 century, wheni

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